Saturday, February 8, 2020

Effect of YouTube on news media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Effect of YouTube on news media - Essay Example It is true that the new media is to a great extent democratic in its approach; still, there is no denying the fact that the new media is as vulnerable to doubtful news manipulation and sensationalism as the traditional news media. As per the surveys conducted in 2007, YouTube is the most visited website in the world, shadowed by only a few new media giants like Google.com, Yahoo.com and Baidu.com (Christensen, 2007, p. 36). Websites like YouTube have definitely democratized the process of news dissemination in the sense that they allow anyone to upload the news content without being censored, monitored, controlled or manipulated. However, YouTube is as much exposed to being exploited by the unscrupulous sources to broadcast falsified and objectionable content. YouTube amply allows the sources affiliated to unrestrained sensationalism to play with the viewer discretion and emotions. One of the most infamous examples in this context is that of ‘lonelygirl15’, a teenage blogger by the name of Bree, whose video clip revelations about the troubles and tribulations of growing up in modern times attracted gargantuan internet traffic of more than 37 million viewers on YouTube (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). To begin with the phenomenon signified the power of the new media, allowing a teenager with a webcam and a computer, sans media background being able to make millions of people around the world listen to what she had to say (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). However, it was in 2006 it was revealed that ‘lonelygirl15’ was the creation of two California based filmmakers (Christensen, 2007, p. 37). The final word was that though the falsity of the ‘lonelygirl15’ was revealed, the video clippings had astonishingly succe eded in creating a huge fan following for the internet celebrity, which could have been practically translated into favorable business ventures and endeavors. Thus YouTube has conclusively democratized the news media, yet

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Family Health Assessment Essay Example for Free

Family Health Assessment Essay The emphasis of Gordon’s functional health patterns concentrates on 11 categories which include: health perception/management, nutritional/metabolic, elimination, activity/exercise, cognitive/perceptual, sleep/rest, self perception/self concept, role/relationship, sexuality/reproductive, coping/stress tolerance, and value/beliefs (Nursing Planet, 2013). These series of questions are effective when accumulating data that can be interpreted and diagnoses can be applied for actual, as well as potential issues. Issues are identified, decisions on interventions, education, and promotion of a realistic, as well as a practical lifestyle (Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, 2014) can be chosen. Discussion in detail of the interview from the Gouker family assessment follows. They have six daughters. Mr. and Mrs. Gouker have been married for 40 years. Utilizing the 11 functional health patterns by Gordon, a family assessment was completed on the Gouker family. The emphasis of health perception/promotion centers on the individuals’ impression of their wellness and how they govern their health (Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, 2014). Due to their age, the Gouker family’s health perception presently revolves around their yearly health examinations and eating healthy. Mr. Gouker is 74 years old and Mrs. Gouker is 68. Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) revealed that only after having experienced weakness did he begin having annual examinations, as he had been healthy his entire life. Mr. Gouker does not take any prescribed medications. Mrs. Gouker participates in yearly examinations and currently has blood work completed every six months due to her chronic diabetes mellitus. Mrs. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) currently takes daily medications for this condition. Since Mrs. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) shops for the family, she stated that they only consume chicken and fish, which is broiled, and scarcely eats beef or pork. She also prepares vegetables with the evening meal. Snacks consist of fresh fruits. The primary meal is dinner, which is eaten together. Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) states that breakfast consists of coffee and rarely has time for lunchtime. Mrs. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) eats breakfast daily which consists of coffee and toast, whereas lunch consists of a salad. Mrs. Gouker has scheduled dentist visits every six months, whereas Mr. Gouker only schedules dental visits every year. According to Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle (2014), elimination pivots around the expulsion of contents in the bowel and bladder, but also includes the skin. Both Mr. and Mrs. Gouker prefer to drink water and they frequently urinate. Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 21, 2014) states, that he has multiple bowel movements daily, whereas Mrs. Gouker has daily bowel movements. Mr. and Mrs. Gouker bathe daily. As stated by Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle (2014), activity and exercise concentrates on the patterns pertaining to activity, exercise, recreation, and leisure. Mrs. Gouker is retired and Mr. Gouker owns a business. Mrs. Gouker utilizes the treadmill for walking. Leisure and recreational activities include yearly travel, and attending professional sporting events. The main focus of cognitive and perceptions are patterns seen in regards to cognition, perception, and the senses (Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, 2014). Mr. Gouker has an Associate’s degree in business administration, whereas Mrs. Gouker graduated high school. When expressing his views on pain management, Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) stated he rarely experiences pain, but if the situation arises he will take an Aleve. Mrs. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) expressed that she only takes Aleve for pain or discomfort. Mrs. Gouker finds satisfaction in reading and completing crossword puzzles, whereas Mr. Gouker manages the business. The main concept of sleep and rest centers on patterns which give priority to sleep, rest, and relaxation (Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, 2014). Mr. Gouker sleeps four to seven hours per night while Mrs. Gouker sleeps seven to eight hours per night. Both Mr. and Mrs. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) state they unwind by watching their favorite television programs or sitting in their rocking chairs on the porch. According to Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle (2014), the focal point of self perception and self concept is on the persons’ viewpoint of themselves which correlate to their self esteem, their self worth, and body appearance. Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) believes that he can accomplish anything he so chooses. He believes that whether a person is a success or failure depends upon your state of mind. Mrs. Gouker perceives herself as a kindhearted woman and views herself as a genuine individual who is helpful to those around her. With regards to body image, Mr. Gouker stands five foot nine inches tall and weighs 175 lbs and is aware that he is overweight. Mrs. Gouker is five foot four inches tall and weighs 182 pounds and perceives herself as slovenly. The focal point of the role and relationship patterns centers on the persons role in the family and the relationship they have with the other family members (Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle, 2014). Mrs. Gouker cherishes being a mother and wife. Mr. Gouker (personal communication, March 11, 2014) states that he is blessed. He loves being a father and provider to all his children. Both Mrs. and Mrs. Gouker are content with their personal relationships with family and friends. According to Edelman, Kudzma, Mandle (2014), the patterns of sexuality and reproduction center on the individuals’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their sexual style. Mrs. Gouker was modest when speaking of their sexual relationship, yet Mr. Gouker was open. Both parties are content with their sexual relationship and have no complaints concerning sex. The focus of coping and stress tolerance pertains to how the individual detects stress and the techniques utilized when encountering stressful events (Edelman, Zudzma Mandl, 2014). This family has always used communication skills to rectify any problems. Prayer is utilized and their faith that God’s guidance assists them. Edelman, Zudzma Mandle (2014) noted that patterns in relation to values and beliefs focus on spiritual beliefs, values, and goals that direct those choices. The Gouker’s are Lutheran and attend services weekly. Upon interview completion of the Gouker family, two wellness and family diagnoses are: Both are at risk for imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements since their individual body mass index (BMI) both exceed 20 percent. Both Mr. and Mrs. Gouker are at risk for body images disturbance. Education for the Gouker’s included the impact of exercise and how this will decrease their body mass index. It is evident that nurses impact the lives of those being cared for regardless of the setting. Education is instrumental is assisting patients and their families to make positive changes in promoting a healthier lifestyle. References Edelman, C. , Kudzma, C. Mandle, C. L. (2014). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (8 ed. ). : VitalSource Bookshelf. Nursing Plant. (2013). Functional Health Patterns. Retrieved March 11, 2014 from www. nursingplanet. com/theory/functional_health_patterns. html Appendix 1)Health prevention and health management. a. How do you feel about keeping your regular doctor visits? b. What, as an individual, do you do to support your health? 2)Nutritional and metabolic a. Regarding your dental needs, what are your oral habits? b. What are your nutritional practices like in general? c. What sort of foods do you consistently eat? 3)Elimination a. How do you manage your bladder and bowel habits? b. What do you do to take care of your skin? 4)Activity and exercise a. How do you spend your time off from work? b. When participating in leisure interests, how many hours do you devote on a weekly basis? c. What do you do for getaways? 5)Cognitive and perceptual a. How do you manage pain? b. What exercises do you do participate in to improve your memory? 6)Sleep and rest a. As an individual, how do you relax? b. On average, how many hours do you sleep at night and what are your sleeping patterns like? 7 )Self perception and self concept a. What is your prospective on your self image today? . In regards to your body image, how do you view your body image? 8)Role and relationships a. As an individual within your family, what is your position in the family? b. In your current position within your family, what makes you satisfied or dissatisfied? 9)Sexual and reproduction a. With your current sexual relationship, are both individuals satisfied or unsatisfied? 10) Coping and stress tolerance a. How do you handle stress? b. When managing situations that are stressful, what do you do? 11)Value and beliefs a. What is your religious denomination? b. In regards to your religion, what guides you towards your goals?

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparative Analysis of Australian Aboriginals, Torres Strait Islanders, and the First Nations of Canada :: Equality Health Human Development Essays

Comparative Analysis of Australian Aboriginals, Torres Strait Islanders, and the First Nations of Canada INTRODUCTION Equality in health implies that ideally everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain his or her full health potential and, more reasonably, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential. Based on this definition, the aim of policy for equity and health is not to eliminate all health differences so that everyone has the same level and quality of health, but rather to reduce or eliminate those which result from factors which are considered to be avoidable and unfair. To appreciate the importance of striving for equity in relation to health, it is necessary to be aware of just how extensive are the differences in health found in the world today. In every part of the region, and in every type of political and social system, differences in health have been noted between different social groups and between different geographical areas in the same country (Whitehead 2000). There is consistent evidence that inequalities in health result in disadvantaged groups having poorer survival chances, suffering a heavier burden of illness, and sharing a similar pattern of low quality of life The poor health of the Australian Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders is well known. Since the 1970s, mortality rates have been declining, but life expectancy has not changed and the gap between the Aboriginal population and the total Australian population has widened. This pattern contrasts with that of the Indigenous population of Canada where marked improvements in health have occurred. From that standpoint, this paper will discuss the important issues of health care inequalities that exist with the Aboriginals in Australia and compare them to those which subsist in the First Nations of Canada. POPULATION OF AUSTRALIA Australians have among the highest life expectancy in the world and most have ready access to comprehensive health care of high quality. In the 1995 National Health Survey, 83% of Australians aged 15 or over reported their overall health as excellent, very good or good (ABS 1997). The average life expectancy in 2000 was high for both men and women being 76 years and 82 years respectively. In terms of disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE), Australia ranks in 2nd place after 191 countries (WHO 2000). In 1998, males at birth could expect to live for 63.3 years without experiencing major disability and women could live for 57.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Qatar’s Struggle to Reduce Traffic Accidents

QATAR’S STRUGGLE TO REDUCE TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Submitted To: Dr. Michael Long Date: January 25, 2006 Date: Sunday, January 25, 2006 To:Dr. Michael Long Instructor CM 2300: Report Writing Subject: Formal Report on Traffic Accidents in Qatar I am submitting the attached report, entitled Qatar’s Struggle to Reduce Traffic Accidents, in accordance with the requirements for the CM2300 Report Writing course. The report covers background material concerning traffic accidents and its implications for society. Traffic accidents are considered one of the most important reasons of death in the Gulf.This paper examines possible practical approaches Qatar may consider, or is considering, in efforts to reduce the increasing number of traffic accidents. This paper discusses various aspects of public transportation problems in Doha, Qatar, and presents a proposal for reducing the risks, as well as penalizing drivers who are consistently involved in accidents. Research for this assignment was completed largely through the use of Internet where government publications and newspaper articles were easily accessible. Sincerely, TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 0 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 1. 1 Thesis Statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 1. 2 Background†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 1. 2. 1 Road Traffic Accidents†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 1. 2. 2 Fatality Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 1. 2. 3 Traffic Congestion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 12 2. 0 Causes. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 14 2. 1 Construction Boom†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 2. 2 Careless Driving†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦14 2. 3 Stress†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 3. 0 Effects†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 16 3. 1 Increased Insurance Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦16 3. 2 Increased Fatality Rates†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦16 4. 0 Problems of Reducing Traffic Accidents †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦. 17 5. 0 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 18 5. 1 Future Plans from the Government†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 18 5. 2 Recommendations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦21 6. 0 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦23 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Graph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8 Figure 2: Graph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Figure 3: G raph†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 Figure 4: Table†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦11 Figure 5: Road Accident†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Figure 6: Installation of Radar†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦19 Figure 7: Installed Radar†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦. 20 SUMMARY The purpose of this report is to identify the reasons why traffic accidents are so high in this region of the world, and to determine the possible impact that they can have on society and humanity. This report discusses the causes and effects of traffic accidents in Qatar and discusses possible solutions to minimize them. After examining specific data, it is evident that traffic accidents account for the most number of deaths in Qatar. They continue to rise and pose a threat to society.In order for Qatar to reduce this menace, the following recommendations have been suggested: (1) Public education and awareness, (2) Dedicated traffic controlling systems, (3) Penalizing drivers who are consistently involved in accidents, (4) Installation of radars throughout the major highways in Qatar, and (5) Increasing the fees on fines for breaking the traffic law INTRODUCTION Traffic accidents are not only a serious problem in Qatar, but all over the world. Countries in the Wes tern Europe, North America and the Middle East have acknowledged the fact that road accidents are a major cause of death and injury.While some people think that traffic accidents are not a serious problem today, consider these statistics. In 2002, while the death rate in Qatar due to cancer was only 10. 6%, the mortality rate due to traffic accidents stood at a whopping 40%, according to Ministry of Public Health statistics. (Al Binali, 2004). I was shocked when I discovered that in Great Britain, over ? 1 billion is spent each year on a wide range of road safety measures. (Jacobs, 1986) 1. 1 THESIS STATEMENT High construction activity, poor driver education, inefficient policing, and the roundabout system are the causes of Doha’s soaring accident problems.Without a proper traffic management system in place, traffic accidents will continue to rise in Qatar. 1. 2 BACKGROUND The following three sections provide background information on traffic accidents, beginning with the his tory of road traffic accidents and fatality rates, followed by how traffic congestion is increasing the problem. 1. 2. 1 ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are increasingly being recognized as a threat to society and the people of Qatar. Qatar, which drives most of it economy on oil, has a very high amount of vehicles on its roads.Due to the construction boom, there has been a high influx of immigrants and workers, resulting in an increase in vehicle numbers, accompanied by regularly expanding road constructions. Previous studies have shown that fatality rates in Qatar are much higher than in the developing countries. The number of accident casualties in Qatar has risen to 40,000 per annum, which is a 17% increase in the number of casualties for 2004 compared to those of 2003; 90% of such casualties are linked to road traffic accidents. (Al Musleh, 2005). Let’s take a look at a case.On March 20, 2003, Sugathadasa Atapattu, 56, was taking a stroll after dinne r in downtown Doha when he was knocked down by a speeding vehicle. Atapattu was taken to hospital where he lay unconscious for three months. He regained consciousness later but remained bed-ridden and lost his speech. His son came here and took him back home late last year after he spent about eight months in the hospital. At home too, he remains bed-ridden. (Pandit, 2004) You can imagine the impact on Atapattu’s life just because of one uneducated careless driver. Atapattu might be bed-ridden all his life, for no mistake of his own.He was just taking a walk and got hit. What did he do to cause this accident? Nothing, but he still has to bear the consequences all his life. 1. 2. 2 FATALITY RATES Figure 1 shows the fatality rates per 10,000 vehicles licensed. As you can observe, developing countries such as Ethiopia, Nigeria and Kenya have the highest fatality rates. Qatar approximately has a fatality rate of 20 per 10000 vehicles Figure 2 uses an alternative approach and show s the fatality rates per 10,000 persons. Using this measure of death rate, a completely different order of ranking is obtained.As you can clearly observe, Qatar is on the top of the order of ranking. Poor countries such as Ethiopia, India, Niger and Pakistan now appear at the bottom of the order of ranking. Figure 3 shows the relationship between fatality rate (per 10000 vehicles) and vehicle ownership in developed and developing countries. It is clearly observed that as the number of vehicles increase, the number of fatalities decrease. This is a very converse scenario to what one would think. One would think that as number of vehicles increase, number of fatalities should increase.But, this is not the case because we forget to take into fact the population increase of cars and its relation to the number of accidents. As the population of cars increases, the risk of accidents decreases because there is no space for a driver to drive fast and cause accidents. Therefore, number of fa talities decrease, as observed. http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. transport-links. rg/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_PA1164_1986. pdf http://www. psychology. nottingham. ac. uk/staff/dec/references/Bener(2005)%20-%20 Advances%20in%20TranStudies. pdf Figure 4 shows a comparison of road accident fatalities in 2 developed countries UK and USA; and 2 developing countries UAE and Qatar, in the year 2000. The table lays out the number of motor vehicle deaths and the number of cars in each country. It also shows the death rates per 100,000 population and per 100,000 vehicles. Qatar has the second highest fatality rates after the UAE.But both developing countries have generally higher death rates than the developed countries. 1. 2. 3 TRAFFIC CONGESTION Road conditions are generally better in most Gulf states than o ther developing countries, but dangerous driving is common especially on highways. As a result, fatality rates due to traffic accidents are much higher here than other developing countries when compared with vehicle ownership. Most families in the more developed countries own their own car. The car gives people greater mobility and improves their access to places where they work, shop, are educated or find recreation.However, it is the widespread use of the car that is increasing traffic congestion in most cities. It is one of the most serious transport issues relating to cities all over the world. It is a recent problem in Doha but is much less worse than traffic problems in cities like Tokyo or Beijing. Insufficient transport systems and natural increase have made Qatar’s traffic problems one of the worst in the Gulf. Roads have been built long back, at a time when population was very low. As population is increasing, roads are becoming less capable to contain high amount o f cars.They are not designed for the volume of traffic today. Accidents and traffic jams are very often seen on roundabouts and traffic lights (See Figure 5). Figure 5: A photograph of an accident at the Toyota junction. [pic] http://www. gulf-times. com CAUSES The following three sections provide detailed information about some causes of traffic accidents. 2. 1 CONSTRUCTION BOOM The construction boom in Qatar has led to many problems in the traffic scenario of Qatar. Regular road blocks and diversions are seen everywhere, resulting in traffic snarls. When a road is blocked, all cars are diverted to another road.That road may not be able to cope up with such a high number of cars. Sometimes, cars are filled on roads from one junction to another, blocking routes for other cars on the junction. This results in absolute mayhem and chaos. Everyone wants to reach office or drop their kids to school on time. So, they take upon themselves, to swerve through traffic as they deem correct. Th ey enter roads which have no entry signs, they cut through traffic by driving in the parking lanes or they drive on the footpaths. This causes major traffic accidents where most of the time more than one car is involved.I have seen 3 accidents at the same time, on just 1 stretch of road, which led to staggeringly high amount of traffic. Basically, one thing leads to another. 2. 2 CARELESS DRIVING Careless driving is identified as the most important factor in traffic accidents, accounting for over 35% of all incidents, while excessive speed is known as the second most common cause. (Bener, 2005). People who drive carelessly and don’t abide by the traffic laws are a nuisance on the roads. They don’t stop on traffic lights, pedestrian crossings or on road stop signs. They constantly change lanes and confuse others as well as themselves.This causes confusion to others and they might bang their car into another. 2. 3 STRESS Everyone is stressed in life. If someone has finan cial problems, another has family problems. A husband has just had a fight with his wife or a youngster has just broken up with his girlfriend. A parent is under stress to get his child to school on time. In all these situations, the driver is driving under so much stress that he cannot give full concentration on the road. I would like to include here an example about myself. Recently, my father died an untimely death due to a cardiac arrest. days after this incident, I went out to buy some grocery nearby and I had a terrible accident. I hit a car and injured the other driver. I recall no memory of seeing that car or of the accident. All I know is that I hit a car. This was all due to the stress and tension I was under. I was so stressed about the problems in my life that I wasn’t concentrating on the road at all; therefore I didn’t notice this car approaching me and hit it head-on. There are several cases out there like these, where stress overcomes the driver and the y lose control of the situation. It is known as one of the major causes of accidents in recent times.Stress accounts for an estimated 12. 8m lost working days a year in Britain and costs businesses at least $4bn. It is difficult to measure how much of this can be put down to commuting, but in one study 44% of drivers named rush-hour traffic as the most stressful aspect of their lives. (Hall, 2006) EFFECTS 3. 1 INCREASED INSURANCE RATES A whole lot of insurance companies have increased their insurance rates and the amount of paperwork, due to the alarming rise in the number of accidents. Some insurance companies even had to shut down some of their branches, because they couldn’t bear the losses.The money an insurance provider has to dole out in claims for death and injuries as well as vehicle repairs in accidents run into millions of riyals. One such insurance provider said it lost QR2. 2m in the first half of 2005 due to compensation given in cases of accident-related deaths and injuries. (, 2005). So, just because of mistakes of others, innocent drivers have to face higher insurance rates. 3. 2 INCREASED FATALITY RATES Statistics suggest there were 840 road accidents in January 2003 with the number going up to 1,173 in January this year.In February 2003, road accidents totalled 675 but in February 2005, the figure reached 1,086. (, 2005). As the number of accidents is rising, the number of fatalities is rising also. Many people are dying because of traffic accidents. Some die due to mistakes of others too. A speeding car may hit a pedestrian and kill them for no mistake of their own. In 2004, 165 people died in road accidents with 79 per cent of the victims being in the age group of 11- 40 and 35 per cent being pedestrians. In 2005, 125 people were killed on the roads. (Bibbo, 2005) PROBLEMS OF REDUCING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTSProblems of reducing traffic accidents are many. Firstly, youngsters between the age group of 16-24 have a tendency to drive very fast . It is an ego problem. They think they have to drive fast to look cool and show off. I can say this because it partly relates to me. No matter how much they are taught, they will continue to drive fast. Even though public awareness is apparent, it is not enough, because they do not truly realize the consequences. Even if they are involved in an accident, they shrug it off as a mistake from the past and continue doing the same, until an accident does not take their life.Only if they can practically see the effect of some horrible accidents, and only if they themselves go through a rough time, then they will realize what their actions can do to society. Secondly, punishments are not enough. There are only meagre fines on breaking the traffic law. Other than that, there are no other punishments given to troublesome drivers. That’s why no one understands the problem because for them it is not a problem at all. No one goes around killing people because they know the punishment fo r murder is death. Therefore, if punishments are increased for breaking traffic rules, then they will realize it as a problem hey should not cause and will become cautious drivers. Lastly, fines are too low. There is only a meagre fine of QR200 on breaking the speed limit. Local Qataris are very rich and they get off by paying small fines. Paying money is not a big deal for them. You can see cars with 10 fine stickers on them, because they don’t care. They can either pay it off from their large bank accounts, or call their friends in the traffic police and get the fines cancelled. CONCLUSION No matter how much one tries to avoid an accident, it is evident that when an accident has to happen, it will happen.If one knew that an accident is going to take place then surely one would avoid it. But, what is in our hands is our safety. We can not avoid accidents but at least we can make sure that we are properly prepared for the situation. 5. 1 FUTURE PLANS FROM THE GOVERNMENT The M inistry has said that Qatar plans to spend over QR1bn over the next three years for the expansion and improvement of its road network, keeping in the view the rapid pace of urbanisation and population growth. Their main concern will be on replacing all major roundabouts in and outside Doha with modern traffic junctions.Tenders for the TV, Midmac, Al Ahli and Passport roundabouts have been released around 3 years ago and work has already started on some and some are already finished. I think this is appropriate because all the above roundabouts are the very congested roundabouts of Doha. Only congested roundabouts should be changed into traffic junctions because it costs a lot of money to change a roundabout into a traffic signal. Previously announced plans of constructing five flyovers and interchange overpasses in and around Doha to cope with increasing volumes of traffic by the start of the new millennium are underway.There are five interchange overpasses in Qatar at present. New radar systems are also being installed to catch drivers jumping traffic lights or speeding (See Figures 6 & 7). Plans are afoot to install 101 radars and cameras all over Qatar to check traffic violations and accidents. 53 mobile radar cabins and 48 cameras are to be installed at traffic signals over the next six months, which would go a long way in ensuring road safety. (Al Malki, 2005) Figure 6: This is a photograph of traffic policemen setting up radar surveillance equipment by the side of roads in Doha. [pic] http://www. ulf-times. com Figure 7: This is a new radar camera installed to detect those who jump traffic lights at the Ramada junction in Doha. [pic] http://www. gulf-times. com Several amendments to the traffic law will now impose stiffer penalties including jail terms on unscrupulous motorists. Violators of the traffic rules will face fines from QR6,000 up to QR12,000 and jail terms between one and six months. Driving without a valid number plate, without a licence or e ngaging in racing and jumping traffic signals, will also be considered serious violations which will carry a fine.The measures are the last in a number of initiatives by governmental bodies that aim to curb the death toll on the road. (Bibbo, 2005) The law prescribes a fine of QR200 for a motorist using a mobile phone while driving. A hands-free set can, however, be used. A similar fine is to be imposed on motorists watching TV while driving. People making children under 10 years of age sit in the front of a vehicle are to be fined QR200 too. (Al Dosri, 2005) 5. 2 RECOMMENDATIONS A fully computerized traffic control system needs to be put in place; a system which automatically notes out drivers that are a danger to society.Radars have to be put in place, not only on signals, but also on roads, to catch drivers driving above speed limits. Any driver caught 3 times on radar should have his license revoked for a temporary period. Drivers who are often a cause of accidents should be bla cklisted and monitored. These are some ways accidents can be reduced. Wearing a seat belt while driving, concentrating totally on driving and nothing else, and following all driving regulations will ensure our safety. In any case of an accident, police and medical authorities have to be prepared also.We can ensure this by following few of these ideas: 1. Training police and medical staff in first aid and handling traffic injuries. 2. Equipping ambulances with state-of-the-art equipment. 3. Improving hospital emergency rooms and facilities 4. Training medical staff to handle injuries at a crash site as well as in hospitals 5. Improving coordination between police, emergency response teams and medical services Movement of heavy duty vehicles should be restricted on the roads to minimize traffic accidents. The traffic police have advanced the morning peak hours by half an hour to start from 6am, instead of 6. 0am now. The morning peak hours would be from 6am to 8am, and in the afternoo n from 12. 30pm to 2pm, same as now. During the peak hours, movement of heavy-duty vehicles and machinery will be banned from city roads. (Marafia, 2004) This will come as a benefit to office-going public and schoolchildren. REFERENCES Al Binali, D. H. (2004). Roads take higher toll than cancer: Minister. The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 02, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=june2004&file=local_news2004062023618. xml Jacobs, G. D. (1986, Jul 14).Road accident fatality rates. Retrieved Dec 24, 2005, from http://www. transport-links. org/transport_links/filearea/publications/1_603_ PA1164_1986. pdf Al Musleh, D. A. (2005). Road traffic accidents, second killer after cardiovascular disease. Retrieved Dec. 26, 2005, from http://www. hmc. org. qa/enews. asp? id=216 Pandit, M. (2004). Lankan accident victim gets QR562,000 in damages . The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 06, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_ news. asp? secti on=local_news&month=july2004&file=local_news20040712325 29. xml Bener, A. & Crundall, D. (2005, Apr 15).Road traffic accidents in the UAE compared to western countries. Advances in Transportation Studies, Retrieved Jan 20, 2006, from http://www. psychology. nottingham. ac. uk/staff/dec/references/Bener (2005)%20-%20Advances%20in%20TranStudies. pdf Insurance firms shut down branches at QTIC premises. (2005). The Peninsula. Retrieved Dec 16, 2005, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=september2005&file=local_news2005090421520. xml Al Malki, C. M. (2005). More radars to detect traffic violations. The Peninsula. Retrieved Dec 18, 2005, from http://www. hepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=local_news&month=march2005&file=local_news2005031525951. xml Bibbo, B. (2005). Qatar includes jail terms in amendments to traffic law. Gulf News. Retrieved Jan 08, 2006, from http://archive. gulfnews. com/articles/05/09/20/182668. html Hall, T. (2006). How not to drive yourself mad. The Weekend, p. 61. Al Dosri, B. (2005). New traffic rules come into force. The Peninsula. Retrieved Jan 23, 2006, from http://www. thepeninsulaqatar. com/Display_news. asp? section=Local_News&subsection=Qatar+News&month=October2005&file=Local_News2005102633414. xml [pic][pic][pic]

Sunday, January 5, 2020

About the Congressional Reform Act

The Congressional Reform Act, to many critics of the system, sounds good on paper. The purported legislation would place term limits on members of the ​U.S. House of Representatives and Senate, and strip lawmakers of their public pensions. If it sounds too good to be true, thats because it is. The Congressional Reform Act is a work of fiction, a sort of angry taxpayers manifesto that went viral on the Web and continues to be forwarded and forwarded again, with little regard for facts. Thats right. No member of Congress has introduced such a bill - and none would, given the widely circulated emails numerous half-truths and bogus claims. So if youre wondering when the Congressional Reform Act will pass the House and Senate, heres a little tip: It wont. The Text of Congressional Reform Act Email Here is one version of the Congressional Reform Act email: Subject: Congressional Reform Act of 2011 The 26th amendment (granting the right to vote for 18 year-olds) took only 3 months 8 days to be ratified! Why? Simple! The people demanded it. That was in 1971†¦before computers, before e- mail, before cell phones, etc. Of the 27 amendments to the Constitution, seven (7) took 1 year or less to become the law of the land†¦all because of public pressure. Im asking each addressee to forward this email to a minimum of twenty people on their address list; in turn ask each of those to do likewise. In three days, most people in The United States of America will have the message. This is one idea that really should be passed around. Congressional Reform Act of 2011 Term Limits. 12 years only, one of the possible options below.A. Two Six-year Senate termsB. Six Two-year House termsC. One Six-year Senate term and three Two-Year House termsNo Tenure / No Pension.A Congressman collects a salary while in office and receives no pay when they are out of office.Congress (past, present future) participates in Social Security.All funds in the Congressional retirement fund move to the Social Security system immediately. All future funds flow into the Social Security system, and Congress participates with the American people.Congress can purchase their own retirement plan, just as all Americans do.Congress will no longer vote themselves a pay raise. Congressional pay will rise by the lower of CPI or 3%.Congress loses their current health care system and participates in the same health care system as the American people.Congress must equally abide by all laws they impose on the American people.All contracts with past and present Congressmen are void effect ive 1/1/12. The American people did not make this contract with Congressmen. Congressmen made all these contracts for themselves. Serving in Congress is an honor, not a career. The Founding Fathers envisioned citizen legislators, so ours should serve their term(s), then go home and back to work. If each person contacts a minimum of twenty people then it will only take three days for most people (in the U.S.) to receive the message. Maybe it is time. THIS IS HOW YOU FIX CONGRESS!!!!! If you agree with the above, pass it on. If not, just delete You are one of my 20. Please keep it going. Mistakes in Congressional Reform Act Email There are numerous errors in the Congressional Reform Act email. Lets start with the most obvious one - the incorrect assumption that members of Congress dont pay into the Social Security system. They are required to pay social security payroll taxes under federal law. Also see: Salaries and Benefits of U.S. Congress Members That wasnt always the case, though. Before 1984 members of Congress did not pay into Social Security. But they also were not eligible to claim Social Security benefits. At the time they participated in what was called the Civil Service Retirement System. The 1983 amendments to the Social Security Act all members of Congress to participate in Social Security as of Jan. 1, 1984, regardless of when they first entered Congress. Other Errors in Congressional Reform Act Email As far as pay raises, cost-of-living adjustments tied to inflation - such as the Congressional Reform Act email suggests - take effect annually unless Congress votes to not accept it. Members of Congress do not vote themselves pay raises, as the email suggests. There are other problems with the Congressional Reform Act email, including the claim that all Americans buy their own retirement plans. Studies show that most full-time workers actually participate in an employer-sponsored retirement plan. Members of Congress get retirement benefits under the same plans available to other federal employees. Meantime, members of Congress already are subject to the same laws the rest of us are, despite claims to the contrary by the Congressional Reform Act email. But lets not quibble over details. The point is: The Congressional Reform Act isnt a real piece of legislation. Even if it were, what are the chances members of Congress would vote to eliminate perks and jeopardize their own job security? But Why Not Term Limits for Congress? Despite the totally mythical nature of the Congressional Reform Act, the very real question of term limits for Congress has been debated for years. If the President of the United States is limited to two terms, why should the terms of senators and representatives not be similarly limited? Proponents argue that term limits would prevent the constant politicking, fundraising, and campaigning for re-election that seems to consume so much of Congress members’ time today, especially in the case of representatives who most run for re-election every two years. Those who oppose term limits, and there are several, say that in America’s democratic republic, elections themselves act as term limits. And, in fact, members of the House and Senate are required to face their local constituents every two years or every six years and re-apply for their jobs. If the people are unhappy with them, they can literally â€Å"toss the rascals out.† Along those same lines, term limit opponents point out that while the president serves all of the people, members of Congress serve only the residents of their states or local congressional districts. Thus, the interaction between members of Congress and their constituents is far more direct and personal in nature. Term limits, they argue, would arbitrarily negate the power of the voters to retain lawmakers they consider effective in representing them. Updated by Robert Longley

Saturday, December 28, 2019

How Current Health Issues Contribute Culture And Geography...

How Current Health Issues Contribute to Culture and Geography in Scotland: In order for me to get a good grasp on what Scotland is lacking in health, I wanted to look at the demographics of each health aspect and what population it affected the most. Because we are specifically targeting workplace wellness programs, I focused most of my attention on the population of people from the age of sixteen to the age of sixty-five (the average retirement age in Scotland is sixty-five). There are six different dimensions of health that contribute to someone s overall well being. These dimensions are: occupational, spiritual, intellectual, physical, emotional and environmental. However, these fall under different health behaviors. The top health behavior problems in most countries are alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, diet and mental health. Through doing some research, I was able to get a hold of a book called The Scottish Health Survey. 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Friday, December 20, 2019

Analysis Of The Book Eleanor Park By Rainbow Rowell...

A Family Forever A secret’s worth depends on the people from whom it must be kept. One cannot choose their family because they are God’s gift to us. A family is filled with those who support and care about you. They look out for you and are there when you need them. Family is the single most important thing in many people’s lives. It is true that some people will not ever understand your grief or is able to identify with your situation, but that should not stop anyone from reaching out to you. In the book â€Å"Eleanor Park,† by Rainbow Rowell, the author describes a primary character named Eleanor whose life has been very difficult. Eleanor was abandoned by both her mother and her father at different times in her life, was abused by her stepfather and is bullied in school because of the way she looks. On the other hand, another primary character Park is a young American teenager who is half-Korean. He is kind and nice person but lonely and weird. Until they find each other, the way they have difference than other people made perfectly for each other: shy, enthusiastic about music and comics book. It is evident in the novel that the mothers of Eleanor and Park, Mindy and Sabrina have taken different paths on parenting. One has made all the wrong choices and the other has made sacrifices for her family. As I read the book, it intrigued me to know how important family is to a person. I am writing to four various people, each with different perspectives and thoughts in Eleanor